One Piece of Evidence is Incomplete: Methodology and the Genealogical Proof Standard Helps Tell a More Robust Family Narrative

The Genealogical Proof Standard states that we should do reasonably exhaustive research, as well as analyze and correlate our evidence (among other steps).[1] A common beginner’s mistake is to find a single document and believe research is complete for that person. Searching for more documents is the task of a diligent researcher. One document rarely tells the whole story, as it is incomplete.

Two narratives will be told, the first explaining the events described in a telegram, and the second narrative will provide more details regarding the telegram and surrounding events, correlating the facts.

telegram

Figure 1 — “Virginia Vessels (Cross) Scrapbook, Telegram” (telegram from Virginia Cross to Allen Cross, June 15, 1945), Mark Cross personal collection.

Narrative A

Virginia Cross kept a scrapbook, which contained a telegram. In reading the telegram, the facts literally on the page include:

  • Telegram was sent from Vine Grove, Kentucky
  • Telegram was sent to Corporal Allen P. Cross
  • Telegram was sent to an APO (Army Post Office) in San Francisco
  • The body of message reads “Dad Vessels passed away June 15 [1945]”
  • Telegram was sent from Virginia

From these facts, one could easily determine that Corporal Allen P. Cross was in the US Army, likely in the Pacific Theatre, in June of 1945. However, we do not know how these three people are related to each other, unless we obtain other documents.

The relatives of these people already know that Virginia Vessels married Allen Cross. “Dad” Vessels was her father. She sent the telegram to her husband in 1945 during WWII, informing him that her father died.[2] This date corroborates the date on the death certificate of William Roy Vessels.[3]

While the two documents of the telegram and the death certificate corroborate the death date of William Roy, this is still an incomplete narrative as it is a singular element. Additional research reveals more.

Narrative B

Now, let us connect the dots and explain more details of the family narrative, using additional sources.

Virginia Marie Vessels was born 9 March 1928 in Hardin County, Kentucky to William Roy Vessels and Sarah Catherine Ray.[4] In 1930, the family resided in Hardin County, Kentucky.[5] By 1935, the family had moved to Los Angeles County, California.[6] The family likely moved due to hard times during the Great Depression. William Roy found work on the oil rigs in Long Beach, California.[7]

William Roy’s mother, Celestia Greenwell Vessels, died on 1 June 1945 in Hardin County, Kentucky.[8] Several of the Vessels family members in California traveled to Kentucky for her funeral. While in Kentucky, William Roy became ill, and died of complications of a heart attack and a burst appendix on 15 June 1945.[9] Virginia buried both her grandmother and her father within two weeks in Kentucky.

The siblings of Virginia are identified in the census records.[10]

Virginia’s brother John Paul served in WWII. In 1945, Virginia could not know the fate of her brother. Today we know John Paul served in WWII,[11] Korea, and Viet Nam, and died in 1977.[12] During his military career, he was awarded the Silver Star, the Bronze Star, and the Purple Heart, among other citations.[13]

Virginia’s brother William Henry also served in WWII, but met with a different fate. He was killed overseas on January 16, 1945 at the age of nineteen.[14] This was only five months prior to the death of Virginia’s grandmother and father. He served in the 272nd Infantry, [15] which fought in the Battle of the Bulge, where family lore says he was killed in action.[16]

Virginia Marie Vessels and Allen Paul Cross had a son during the war.[17] When Virginia’s father died in June 1945, her son was an infant. As was common at the time, she likely wondered if her son would ever know his soldier father. As it turns out, Allen did return from the war, and he and Virginia had a total of seven children.[18]

Comparison of the Two Narratives

Narrative A tells us that Virginia’s father died, and she sent a telegram to her husband informing him of that fact. Her husband was overseas in the Army during WWII. This information is gleaned from primarily two sources, the telegram and the death certificate of Virginia’s father. Note that Virginia’s father and husband are not identified with only these documents. The dots are not yet connected.

Narrative B provides more detail, with many more sources. Virginia is identified as daughter of William Roy, sister to her brothers, and wife to Allen Cross by these additional documents.[19] Virginia was born in Kentucky but raised in California. Some family members traveled to Kentucky for her grandmother’s funeral, and her father became ill on the trip and died about two weeks later. Virginia had two brothers serving in WWII, one had been killed in action just five months prior to the Kentucky funerals. Virginia and her husband Allen had a young son born during the war. Virginia’s husband was also serving in WWII and both were well aware of the hazards of war. With several family members now deceased, Virginia sent a telegram to her husband, telling him her father died, whom her husband in all likelihood had met. Virginia’s husband was unable to comfort or console her as he was overseas fighting the war.

Narrative B also illustrates the FAN Club [Friends, Associates & Neighbors] research methodology advocated by Elizabeth Shown Mills.[20] Many of these additional facts are not directly about Virginia, but about her family members. These family events undoubtedly had an impact on Virginia.

Conclusion

Narrative A provides some important, but scant, details regarding the event of the death of Virginia’s father. Narrative B provides many more important and relevant details, including FAN Club research.

We do not know exactly what Virginia was thinking or feeling, as there are no surviving letters or journals that describe this time of her life in her own words. However, for any human with emotions and empathy, the facts speak for themselves. Virginia had a challenging time near the end of the war, with several family deaths occurring quite near each other, both overseas and away from her California home in Kentucky.

While the telegram provides important information, by itself it is only a singular element in a larger story. The Genealogical Proof Standard suggests additional steps in research. With reasonably exhaustive research, and analyzing and correlating the information, more details are uncovered, and a more compelling story can be told. At the heart of genealogy, we gather many solid facts, with source citations, so we can tell a compelling story.

footnotes

[1] Board for Certification of Genealogists, Genealogy Standards: 50th Anniversary Edition (Ancestry.com, 2014).
[2] “Virginia Vessels (Cross) Scrapbook, Telegram” (telegram from Virginia Cross to Allen Cross, June 15, 1945), Mark Cross personal collection.
[3] Registrar of Vital Statistics Kentucky, “Death Certificate No 12428, William Roy Vessels” (June 15, 1945).
[4] Cabinet for Health and Family Services Kentucky, “Virginia Marie Vessels Birth Certificate, Cert #4102231” (1928).
[5] “1930 US Federal Census, Population Schedule, Hardin County, Kentucky, Page 1A (Penned). Dwelling 6, Family 6,” FamilySearch, accessed August 19, 2019, https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XM6G-KYD.
[6] “1940 US Federal Census, Population Schedule, Los Angeles County, California, Downey Township, Sheet 23A (Penned), Household 560,” FamilySearch, accessed August 19, 2019, https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9MT-8X3J?i=45&cc=2000219&personaUrl=%2Fark%3A%2F61903%2F1%3A1%3AK97X-P6Q. The 1940 Census records that the Vessels family lived in the “same house” in 1935.
 [7] “World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, (4th Registration) for the State of California, William Roy Vessels” (April 25, 1942), Record Group Number: 147, The National Archives at St. Louis, https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=1002&h=12955879&ssrc=pt&tid=114630085&pid=130135264287&usePUB=true.
[8] Registrar of Vital Statistics Kentucky, “Death Certificate, File No. 12292, Selestie Vessels” (June 1, 1945).
[9] Death Certificate, William Roy Vessels.
[10] “1930 US Federal Census, Hardin County, Kentucky.” Also see “1940 US Federal Census, Los Angeles County, California.”
[11] “U.S., World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946 – John Paul Vessels Ancestry.Com,” accessed August 19, 2019, https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=8939&h=2053041&tid=114630085&pid=130135264171&hid=1036530007741&usePUB=true&_phsrc=ivO1235&_phstart=default&usePUBJs=true&currentPageIsStart=.
[12] “John Paul Vessels (1916-1977) – Find A Grave” accessed August 19, 2019, https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/24335202/john-paul-vessels.
[13] “Virginia Vessels (Cross) Scrapbook, John Paul Vessels Disposition Form” (US Army Disposition Form, after 1953), Mark Cross personal collection.
[14] “William Henry Vessels (1926-1945) – Find A Grave,” accessed August 19, 2019, https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/74352587/william-henry-vessels.
[15] Ancestry.com, “U.S., Headstone Applications for Military Veterans, 1925-1963, William H. Vessels, Serial No. 39580850” (n.d.).
[16] Rod Vessels, “Rod Vessels Family Tree Maker Genealogy Database: Unsourced Genealogy” (July 12, 2011), Mark Cross personal collection.
[17] Name withheld for privacy, living person.
[18] Names withheld for privacy, living persons.
[19] Some documents not cited here for privacy of living persons.
[20] “Elizabeth Shown Mills Genealogy – FamilySearch Wiki,” accessed August 19, 2019, https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Elizabeth_Shown_Mills.

Free Evernote Webinar

Evernote is doing a webinar so you can learn more about their app. August 14, 2019 at noon.  (note, this is 12:00 noon Central Time)

From their website;

Is your Evernote account a little bit out of control? Or maybe every time you open your Evernote account you feel overwhelmed?

If you feel like your Evernote is a “hot-mess” and you’re ready to start fresh, then this free webinar is for you.

Register for webinar at https://events.evernote.com/events/details/evernote-webinars-virtual-events-presents-webinar-starting-fresh-with-evernote/

I use Evernote. If you’re thinking about it, check out their free webinar!

Keep Looking!

Always keep looking, don’t give up. Records are coming online all the time.

A few years ago, I searched online records for Huntingdon County and other nearby counties in Pennsylvania, and what I was looking for was not available. Just last week, I did another search and found things that weren’t there before! sometime between last week and a few years ago they went online.

I didn’t need to wait a few years…you could just as easily keep very good research logs with records of what you searched for and when…and try again every year or six months. When new stuff pops up, search the index, or full records if you need to, and you just may find some new things!

I’m working on a bigger write-up of what I found, and how it fits in, but the long version of the full Research Report is about 20 pages in Word. I may post shorter versions or snippets here.

Just remember to keep looking!

Genealogy Jamboree

This weekend is Genealogy Jamboree in Southern California! I am a member of the Southern California Genealogical Society, host of the Jamboree. We are celebrating our 50th year of Jamboree!

I hope to see some of you there this weekend!

Jamboree is May 30-31 and June 1-2, 2019.

For more information, click on http://genealogyjamboree.com/

 

Genealogy Class in Antelope Valley August 14

I’m teaching a genealogy class at the Antelope Valley Genealogical Society!

Class is on August 14, 2019 starting at 7:00 PM.

Lecture subject is “Don’t Forget Your Home Sources” and will happen at the
Chimbole Cultural Center at 700 East Palmdale Blvd., Palmdale, CA 93550.

The website for the AVGS is here.

See you there!

Beginning Genealogy Class August 10

I will be teaching a Beginning Genealogy Class on Saturday, August 10, 2019. Class starts at 9:00 AM and will be 3 hours long.  Followed by the Lunch and Learn series.

This will be at the Southern California Genealogical Society, at 417 Irving Drive, Burbank, CA 91504.

I’ll teach some basics, standards, 6 Best Practices with Genealogy Research, and 6 Tools to Expand Your Research Skills, and more!

If you’re in SoCal at that time, drop by and say hello!

Their website is http://www.scgsgenealogy.com/ to learn about the other things we do at SCGS.

Three R’s in Genealogy

Reading, Writing, Arithmetic

I remember when my grade school teacher first told us about the Three R’s in school. Being smart-aleck kids, we made fun of the whole thing. Reading is the only word that actually starts with an R. Writing starts with a W, and the only way to get to R with Arithmetic is to skip an entire syllable. A short syllable, admittedly, but…I’m only hinting at how cruelly my grade school class tore apart the Three R’s model and basically insulted and mocked our teacher.

But, nonetheless, the idea has stuck around for many decades. It’s memorable. Technically, it is a mnemonic device.

In genealogy, we use the Three R’s with our research.

We read documents all the time. We must read documents, and analyze them, to understand our ancestors’ past lives and facts about their lives. We also read books, blogs, and syllabi from seminars to learn new skills, to better analyze and better research the documents we find.

We write documents. At the very least, we type in names, dates, and facts into a family tree, often one that is online so others can find it. This is form of a digital document. When we become more advanced, we also write other documents, digital or paper, such as research reports, sourced genealogies, and maybe even proof arguments. We leave a trail behind so that future generations can view and appreciate our work.

We also do arithmetic. Some examples include determining an unknown date. For example, we may research an ancestor and we discover there is no birth certificate, as those documents were not yet recorded. We may find a church baptism record. We do simple logical determinations; if they were baptized on that date, they were already born, so we may type in a date such as “born before 12 Jan 1848.” Before by how much time, we may not be able to determine. Sometimes just a day or two. Sometimes a week. Sometimes, if it was a traveling preacher who came to town every month or several weeks, much more time may have gone by between birth and baptism. And of course, some religions believe in baptizing only adults who have knowledge of what a baptism means, so the person may be 14years old, or even an adult of 70, before they are baptized. But “born before 12 Jan 1848” is sufficient in many cases.

We may discover a will that was written on June 29, 1834, but was not proved, or finished with court probate proceedings, until August 10, 1834. We determine that the person was alive on June 29 when they wrote the will, but a will is only proved after their death, so they must have been dead by August 10. When did they die, exactly? We often write a range, or died between two dates, such as “29 June 1834 — 10 Aug 1834.” Sometimes that’s the best we know for now, until we get other documents, and sometimes that’s the best we know…ever.

Many of us have come across a unique gravestone, which may give no birth date, but gives a death date “May 16, 1892” and provide the age of the deceased at death, such as “71 years, 5 months, 3 days” and then we must do math to determine a birth date. With this example, we would have both a birth date and a death date, but we must do math to figure it out.

Genealogy, in many ways, is just some basic skills that we all learned in grammar school. Including the Three R’s: Readin’ wRitin’, and ‘Rithmetic.

The hard part is finding the documents, and analyzing the documents.